This course is one of the key communication resources of the exhibition. Before going into its construction, it is important to emphasize the importance of having the answers to these three questions specified:
- What it is the purpose?
- For whom?
- What results and reactions are sought?
This quote from Churchill illustrates very well how you can approach preparing a speech:
“If I have to deliver a two-hour speech, I use ten minutes in your presentation. If it is a ten minute speech then it takes two hours to prepare” Winston Churchill.
A) STRUCTURE OF A SPEECH
The structure of the discourse is the skeleton on which the presentation rests. The selected contents are reflected throughout these three stages of exposure.
Introduction / Beginning “Say what we are going to say”. In its initial part, the speech must contain the basic idea or ideas that will be developed later. This initial part is when the greeting, presentation and advance of the main idea occurs. In addition, the duration of the exhibition and the documentation or resources used can be specified. The introductory phase is key to capturing the audience’s attention, building credibility, and sparking interest.
This video ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUbuIRfm5F4 ) presents some key ideas for preparing to introduce a speech.
Body / Development “Say it”. The central part of the speech will develop the main idea.
Once the speech introduction has been made, it is time to move on to the content development phase. At this stage is where essential arguments are provided that lead to the outcome of the presentation.
Conclusion / End or outcome ”Say what has been said.” In the outcome or end of the speech, it is recommended to repeat clearly and concisely the main idea that supports the presentation. In this last phase, if necessary, the actions to be undertaken would be clarified. Subsequently, it is the turn of interventions, questions and answers to finally thank the assistance and attention and say goodbye.
Each of these three parts must be properly connected to the other. All together they form a story. If there is no connection or coherence between the parties, the audience will lose the thread and disconnect.
Developing the structure of a speech can be easier if the following steps are followed:
- Objective: clearly define the objective.
- Write down the central idea on which the speech will revolve.
- Choose an attractive and suitable title.
- Script the content through a structure.
- Develop the scripted content.
- Add your own and others’ data and experiences to illustrate the presentation.
B) ARGUMENT CONSTRUCTIONS
Once you have the structure of the speech or speech we move to the construction phase of the arguments. What are we going to say? On many occasions, many ideas appear in our minds with which to argue and build our speech, but we find it more difficult to express it publicly.
Key ideas for constructing arguments:
- It is recommended to transmit the ideas through short messages. In general, they usually cause more impact. We can use short messages to convey the main ideas and develop them later.
- The language must be clear, correct and precise. Language must aid understanding
- The content of the speech must be concise and brief. Baltasar Gracián said. “The good thing if brief twice good. The public will thank you.
- All the arguments used must give an image of unity. As if it were a painting, the entire exhibition must compose the perfect image. The basic structure of content, development and conclusion helps protect the unit from exposure.
- Each argument must have a well-built premise and conclusion (contents that you will see below).
- The various arguments raised must be consistent with each other. If we contradict ourselves, who will believe us?
This article presents more developed content on the principles, parts and objectives of an argument.
C) THE ARGUMENTATIVE PROCESS: PHASES, COMPONENTS AND TYPES OF ARGUMENTATION
The argumentative process consists, mainly, of three phases:
a) Form an opinion. A criterion is formed to carry information and reflection. Whoever is going to offer an intervention, must previously inform themselves about the subject, select the information that seems most relevant to them and reflect on it.
b) Sustain and support the opinion formed. In a speech or intervention, the rapporteur’s opinion must be supported by reasons that argue the thesis.
c) Take into account other opinions regarding the same topic. Throughout the argumentation process, the speaker should identify other possible opinions and analyze them. Once analyzed, you must know how to refute those that you consider to be wrong and accept those parts of other opinions that you consider acceptable.
To support and defend the arguments, it may be very useful to use expressions such as: Since, starting from, seeing that, since, consequently, we reached the conclusion, therefore, as a result, most specialists support this thesis. because, I understand your argument though …
An argument is made up of sentences or propositions called premises and conclusions .
The premise alludes to the reasons that make the foundation or support of the argument. They are expressions that constitute the starting point of the argument affirming or denying something. Thanks to them, the audience can rationally accept the conclusion that we propose.
The conclusion is the proposition that presents the final ideas generated from the previous premises.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSAWrqavYg0 What is an argument? .This video tells you more about the components of an argument.
D) TYPES OF ARGUMENTATION
Deductive argumentation. Characterized by a close relationship between the premises and the conclusion; if we have true premises, the conclusion is also true. And, conversely. It is a safe method of argumentation but it does not provide new information. “All men are mortal. Socrates is a man therefore is mortal”. Deductive argumentation uses a direct technique since it exposes the main idea at the beginning. It usually applies to “positive” messages. The audience is presumed to show liking and interest, is informative, and easy to follow.
Inductive argumentation. Like deductive argumentation, it is made up of premises and conclusion, but the relationship is different. In inductive reasoning the conclusions are partially supported by the premises. Not as long as the premises are true, the conclusion is. Conversely, not as long as the conclusion is true, its premises are.
Abductive argumentation. This argumentation is the most logical explanation for a given conclusion. This does not mean that this argument is the most accurate. Example, the ground is wet and it has not rained; the neighbors must have watered the plants.
Argumentation by analogy. This type of argumentation can help us deal with issues that we do not know in depth. More or less logical conclusions can be drawn from analogies or comparisons. Example: In my neighborhood the market opens at 7am so I understand that in your neighborhood the market opens at a similar time.
Supporting our discourse in logical arguments, demonstrations or theories that approve and endorse our presentation helps us complete the message and capture the attention of the most rational public.
Finally, incorporating your own or others’ experiences, concrete data or illustrative examples make the presentation personal and made according to the audience that accompanies us.
E) MANAGEMENT OF DOCUMENTATION SOURCES
The more prepared an intervention is, the more natural it will seem. Curiously, it will seem improvised. People who are excellent at some subject or activity have the ability to make complex easy, or at least appear to be.
Before constructing any discourse, it is essential to select and structure the content of the discourse.
What are the sources that offer information to build a discourse? Here are some of the resources that can help you prepare the content:
- Reading books, press, specialized articles, Internet.
- Connection with teachers, experts or professionals in the field.
- Your closest environment; family, friends, partner, etc.
- Yourself; through your knowledge, experiences and reflections.
But, not everything goes. Today we have a lot of information on any subject. The merit is in selecting the content that truly generates value for our audience.
In this link they advise on certain guidelines to follow when selecting the information to incorporate it into the speech. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/ivytech-comm101-master/chapter/using-examples/
Taking into account that the information may soon become obsolete, these criteria can help you filter and select the information.
- Select IMPORTANT and RELEVANT information (that which gives a clear and direct response to the needs of the audience).
- Opt for sources that seem reliable and truthful.
- Look for precision in the data provided.
- Choose the most current information. If you understand it opportunely, it uses older content but ends up referring to the most current