Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis and Annie McKee in their book entitled Primal Leadership, describe six styles of leading that have different effects on the emotions of the target followers. Leaders are free to use any style they think effective or a good mix of different styles customized to their groups/teams and situations they think would work most effectively.
1. The Visionary Leader – is letting the group go where they have to go, but would not tell them how to get there, consequently motivating the group to struggle forward. The group openly shares information, hence giving knowledge to others. These types of leaders may fail if they have to motivate more experienced experts or peers. This leadership style is better to be used when a new direction is needed within your enterprise or business.
2. The Coaching Leader – connects to organizational goals, holding long conversations that reach beyond the workplace, helping people find strengths and weaknesses and tying these to career aspirations and actions. They are good at delegating challenging assignments, demonstrating faith that demands justification and which leads to high levels of loyalty. Done badly, this style looks like interfering. It is best used when individuals need to build long-term capabilities.
3. The Affiliative Leader – creates connections between and with people around him/her, and thus harmony within the organization. It is a very collaborative style which focuses on emotional needs over work needs. Done well, it is often used alongside visionary leadership. It is best used for healing rifts (make an unfriendly situation friendly again) and getting through stressful situations. When done badly, it avoids emotionally distressing situations such as giving negative feedback.
4. The Democratic Leader – acts to value inputs and commitment via participation, listening to both the bad and the good news. It is best used to gain buy-in or when simple inputs are needed (when you are uncertain). When done badly, it looks like lots of listening, but very little effective action.
5. The Pace-setting Leader – builds challenge and exciting goals for people, expecting excellence and often exemplifying it themselves. They identify poor performers and demand more of them. If necessary, they will roll up their sleeves and rescue the situation themselves. They tend to be low on guidance, expecting people to know what to do. They get short term results, but over the long term this style can lead to exhaustion and decline. It is best used for results from a motivated and competent team. Done badly, it lacks emotional intelligence, especially self-management.
6. The Commanding Leader – calms fears and gives clear directions by his or her powerful attitude, commanding and expecting full compliance (agreement is not needed). They need emotional self-control for success and can seem cold and distant. This approach is best in times of crisis when you need unquestioned rapid action and with problem employees who do not respond to other methods.